The Return of the King: from four contemporary accounts

Posted: March 16, 2011 in Earl of March/Edward IV, Primary sources

On 14 March, the hastily deposed and recently exiled king Edward IV landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire. In exactly one month, he would once again be the reigning king and within two, for the first time in his reign, the only king of England.


For the said king Edward, being provided with troops and ships by Charles, duke of Burgundy, about the middle of the ensuing Lent after his banishment effected a landing with fifteen hundred English followers in the district of Holdernesse, at the same spot at which Henry the Fourth had formerly landed when about to dethrone king Richard. Passing through the city of York, he assumed no other title beyond that of duke, as being heir to his father; for it was necessary to use some dissimulation there, as many of the people were opposed to him. After this, he arrived, without any resistance being offered, before the city of Coventry, in which the earls of Warwick and Oxford had shut themselves with a great body of troops.

In the meantime, the duke of Clarence before-named, brother to king Edward, had been fully reconciled to the king by the mediation of his sisters, the duchesses of Burgundy and Exeter, of whom, the one without the kingdom, and the other within it, entreated the duke to make peace with his brother; after which, he hurried with a very large force from the western parts of the kingdom to the king’s presence. The numbers on the king’s side thus increasing every day, the earls at Coventry did not dare venture either to proclaim against the king or to accept the pitched battle which was offered them by him.

Warkworth’s Chronicle

And in the secunde weke of Marche, the xlix yere of the regne of Kynge Herry the vj, and in the x yere of the regne of Kynge Edward the iiij, the same Kynge Edwarde toke his schyppinge in Flaunders, and hade withe hym the Lorde Hastynges and the Lords Say and ix c of Englismenne and three hundred of Flemmynges with handegonnes, and sailed toward Englonde, and had grete troble uppon the see with stormys, and lost a schyppe withe horse; and purpost to have londede in Northfolke, and one of the Erle [of] Oxenforde’s brother withe the comons of the cuntre arose up togedere, and put hym abake to see ageyne. And after that, as he was so trobled in the see, that he was fayne to londe in Yorkeschyre at Ravenys-spore; and there rose agenys hym alle the cuntre of Holdernes, whose capteyne was a preste, and a persone of the same cuntre called Sere Jhon Westerdale, whiche aftyrwarde for his abused disposycion was casten in presone in the marshalse in Londone by the same Kynge Edwarde; for the same preste mett Kynge Ewarde and askede of the cause of hys landynge; and he answeryde that he came thedere by the Erle of Northumberlondes avyse; and schewede the Erles lettere ysend to hym &c undere his seale; and also he came for to clayme the Duchery of Yorke, where the whiche was his inherytaunce of ryght, and so passed forthe to the cite of Yorke, where Thomas Clyfford lete hym inne, and ther he was examynede ayenne; and he sayde to the mayre and aldermenne and to alle the comons of the cite, in likewyse as he was afore at Holdernes at his landyng; that was to sey that [he] nevere wulde clayme no title, ne take uppone honde to be Kynge of Englonde, nor wuld have do afore that tyme, but he excitynge and sturing of the Erle of Warwyke; and therto afore alle peple, he cryed “A! Kynge Herry! A! Kynge and Prynce Edwarde!” and wered ane estryche feder, Prynce Edwardes lyvery. And after this he was suffred to passe the cite, and so helde his wey southwarde, and no man lettyed hym ne hurtyde him.

Afterward that, he came towarde Notyngham, and ther came to hyme Sere William Stanley, with ccc men and Sere William Norys, and dyverse other menne and tenauntes of Lorde Hastynges, so that he hade M{1}, M{1} menne and moo; and anone aftere he made his proclamacyone, and called hym self Kynge of Englonde and of Fraunce, Thenne toke he his wey to Leycetre, where the Erle of Warwyke and the Lard Markes his brother with iiij, m{1} menne or moo. And Kynge Edwarde sent a messyngere to them, that yf thai wulde come oute, that he wulde feght withe hym tylle he came hym self; and alle was to the distruccion of the Erle of Warwyke, as it happenede alftyrwarde. yet so the Erle of Warwyke kept stille the gates of the toun schet, and suffrede Kynge Edwarde passe towarde Londone; and a litelle out of Warwyke mett the Duke of Clarence with Kynge Edward, with vjj M{1} men, and ther thei were made acorde, and mad a proclamacion forthewithe in Kynge Edwardes name; and so alle covandes of fydelite, made betwyx the Duke of Clarence, and the Erle of Warewyk, Quene Margarete, Prince Edwarde hir sonne, bothe in Englonde and in Fraunce, were clerly brokene and forsakene of the seide Duke of Clarence; whiche, in conclusions, was distruccion bothe to hym and them; for perjury schall nevere have better ende, witheoute grete grace of God. Vide finem &c.


King Edward set sail for England in the year 1471, at the same time as the Duke of Burgundy marched towards Amines against the King of france. The duke was of opinion that the affairs of England could not go amiss for him, since he was sure of friends on both sides. King Edward was no sooner landed, but he marched for London where he had above 2000 of his party in sanctuary; among whom were 300 or 400 knights and esquires, who were of great advantage to his affairs, for he brought over with him a small number of forces. The Earl of Warwick was at that time in the north with a powerful army, but upon the news of King Edward’s landing, he marched back again with all speed towards London, in hopes to have got thither before him. However, he presumed the city would have been true to him but he was mistaken; for King Edward was received into the city on Maundy Thursday, with the universal acclamations of the citizens, contrary to the expectations of most people, for everybody looked upon him as lost; and without dispute, if the citizens had but shut their gates against him, he had been irrevocably lost, for the Earl of Warwick was within a day’s march of him. As I have been since informed, there were three things especially, which contributed to his reception into London. The first was, the persons who were in sanctuaries, and the birth of a young prince, of whom the queen was there brought to bed. The next was, the great debts he owed in the town, which obliged all the tradesmen who were his creditors to appear for him. The third was, that the ladies of quality, and rich citizens’ wives with whom he had formerly intrigued, forced their husbands and relations to declare themselves on his side.

The Arrivall

In the yere of grace 1471, aftar the comptinge of the churche of England, the ij day of Marche, endynge the x yere of the reigne of our soveraign Lord Kynge Edwarde the IV, by the grace of God Kynge of England and of Fraunce, and Lord of Irland, the sayde moaste noble kynge accompanied with ij thowsand Englyshe men, well chosen, entendynge to passe the sea, and to reentar and recovar his realme of England, at that tyme usurpyd and occuped by Henry, callyed Henry VI, by the traytorous meanes of the greate rebell Richard, Erle of Warwicke, and his complices, entered into his shipe, afore the haven of Flisshinge, in Zeland, the sayde ij of Marche; and forasmoche as aftar he was in the shippe, and the felowshipe also, with all that to them appertayned, the wynd fell and not good for hym, he therefore wold not retorne agayne to the land, but abode in wynde and wether; whiche had the xj daye of Marche, he made saile, and so did all the shipps that awayted upon hym, takyng theyr cowrse streyght over the coste of Norfolke, and came before Crowmere, the Tuesdaye, agayne even, the xij day of Marche; withar the Kynge sent on land Ser Robart Chambarlayne, Syr Gilbert Debenham, Knyghts, and othar, trustinge by them to have some knowledge how the land inward was disposed towards hym, and, specially, the countries there nere adioyninge, as in party so they browght hym knowledge from suche as for that caws wer sent into thos parties from his trew servaunts and partakars within the land, whiche tolde them, for certayne, that those parties wer right sore beset by th’Erle of Warwyke, and his adherents, and, in especiall, by th’Erle of Oxenforde, in such wyse that, of lyklyhood, it might not be for his wele to land in the contrye; and a great cawse was, for the Duke of Norfolke was had owt of the contrye, and all the gentlemen of whom th’Erle of Warwicke bare any suspicion ware, afore that, sent for by letars of privie seale, and put in warde about London, or els found surety; natheles, the sayd ij Knyghts, and they that came on land with them, had right good chere, and turned agayne to the sea. Whos report herd, the Kynge garte make course towards the north partyes. The same night followinge, upon the morne, Wenesday and Thursday the xiiij daye of Marche, fell great stormes, wynds and tempests upon the sea, so that the sayde xijjj day, in great torment, he came to Humbrehede, where the othar shipps were dissevered from hym, and every from other, so that, of necessitye, they were dryven to land, every fere from other. The Kynge, with his shippe aloone, wherein was the Lord Hastings, his Chambarlayne, and other to the nombar of v{c} well chosen men, landed within Humber, on Holderness syde, at a place callyed Ravenersporne, even in the same place where sometime the Usurpowr Henry of Derby, aftar called Kynge Henry IV landed, aftar his exile, contrary and to the dissobeysance of his sovereigne lord, Kynge Richard the II whome, aftar that, he wrongfully distressed, and put from his reigne and regalie, and usurped it falsely to hymselfe and to his isswe, from whome was linially descended Kynge Henry, at this tyme usinge and usurpinge the coronoe, as sonne to his eldest sonne, somtyme callyed Kynge Henry the V. The Kynte’s brothar Richard, Duke of Glowcestar, and, in his company, iij{c} men, landyd at an othar place iiij myle from thens. The Earle Rivers, and the felowshipe beinge in his companye, to the nombar of ij{c}, landyd at a place called Powle, xiiij myle from there the Kynge landyd, and the reminaunt of his felowshipe wher they myght best get land. That night the Kynge was lodgyd at a power village, ij myle from his landynge, with a few with hym; but that nyght, and in the morninge, the resydewe that were comen in his shipe, the rage of the tempest somewhate appeasyd, landyd and alwaye drewe towards the Kynge. And on the morne, the xv day of Marche, from every landynge place the felowshipe came hoole towards hym. As to the folks of the countrye there came but right few to gym, or almost none, for, by the scuringe of suche persons as for that cawse were, by his said rebells, sent afore into thos partes for to move them to be agains his highnes, the people were sore endwsed to be contrary to hym, and not to receyve, ne accepe hym, as for theyr Kynge; natwithstondynge, for the love and favour before they had borne to the prince of fulnoble memorye, his father, Duke of Yorke, the people bare hym right great favowr to be also Duke of Yorke, and to have that of right apartayned unto hym, by the right of the sayde noble prince his fathar. And, upon this opinion, the people of the countrie, whiche in greate nombar, and in dyvars placis, were gatheryd, and in harnes, redye to resiste hym in chalenginge of the Royme and the crowne, were disposyd to content them selfe, and in noo wyse to annoy hym, ne his felowshipe, they affirymynge that to such entent were [they] comen, and none othar. Whereupon, the hoole felowshipe of the Kynges comen and assembled togethar, he toke advise what was best to doo, and concludyd brifely, that, albe it his enemies and chefe rebells were in the sowthe partes, at London and ther about, and that the next way towards them had to be by Lyncolneshire, yet, in asmooche as, yf that shulde have taken that waye, they must have gon eft sones to the watar agayne, and passyd ovar Humbar, whiche they abhoryd for to doo; and also, for that, yf they so dyd it would have be thowght that they had withdrawn them for feare, which note of sklaundar they wer right lothe to suffar; for thes, and othar goode considerations, they determined in themselves not to goo agayne to the watar, but to holde the right waye to his City of Yorke. The Kynge determined also, that, for as longe as he shuld be in passynge thrughe and by the contrye, and to the tyme that he myght, by th’assistaunce of his trew servaunts, subiects and lovars whiche he trustyd veryly in his progres shuld come uunto hym, be of suche myght and puissaunce as that were lykly to make a sufficient party, he and all thos of his felowshipe, shuld noyse, and say openly, were so evar they came, that his entent and purpos was only to clame to be Duke of Yorke, and to have and enjoy th’enheritaunce that he was borne unto, by the right of the full noble prince his fathar, and none othar. Thrwghe whiche noysynge the people of the contrye that were gatheryd and assembled in dyvars placis, to the number of vi or vij thowsand men, by the ledinge and gwydynge of a priste the vycar of ———, in one place, and a gentleman of the same contry, callyd Martin of the See, to th’entent to have resisted and lettyd hym his passage by the stiringe of his rebells, theyr complices and adherents, toke occasyon to owe and beare hym favowre in that qwarell, not discoveringe, ne remeberinge, that his sayd fathar, bisydes that he was rightfully Duke of Yorke, he was also verrey trew and rightwise enheritour to the roylme and corone of England &c so he was declared by [the] iij astates of the land, at a parliament holden at Westmynster, unto this day never repelled, ne revoked. And, under this manar, he kepinge furthe his purpos with all his felowshipe, toke the right way to a gode towne, called Beverley, being in his high way towards Yorke. He sent to an othar gode towne, walled, but vj myles thens, called Kyngstown upon Hull, desyringe th’enhabitants to have openyd it unto hym, but they refused so to doo, by the meanes and stirings of his rebells, whiche aforne had sent thethar, and to all the contrye, strict commendements willing, and also charginge, them, at all their powers, to withstonde the Kynge, in caase he there aryved. And, therefore, levinge that towne, he kept his way forthe streight to Yorke. And nere this way were also assembled great compaignies in divars places, muche people of the contrie, as it was reported, but they cam not in syght, but all they suffred hym to pas forthe by the contrye; eythar, for that he had all his felowshipe pretended by any manar langage none othar qwarell but for the right that was his fathars, the Duke of Yorke; of ells, for that, thowghe they were in nombar mo than he, yet they durst not take upon them to make hym any manifest warre, knowynge well the great curage and hardines that he was of, with the parfete asswrance of the felowshipe that was with hym; or ells, paradventure, for that certayne of theyr captaines and garders were some whate enduced to be the more benivolent for money that the Kynge gave them; wherfore the Kynge, keping furthe his way, cam beforn Yorke, Monday the xviij. day of the same monithe. Trewthe is that aforne the Kynge came at the citie, by iij myles, came unto him one callyd Thomas Coniers, Recordar of the citie, whiche had not bene afore that named trwe to the Kynges partie. He tolde hym that it was not good for hym to come to the citie, for eyther he shuld not be suffred to enter, or els, in caas he enteryd, he was lost, and undone, and all his. The Kynge, seeing so ferforthly he was in his ionrey that in no wyse he might goo backe with that he had begone, and that no good myght folowe but only of hardies, decreed in hymselfe constantly to purswe that he had begon, and rathar to abyde what God and good fortune would gyve hym, thwoghe it were to hym uncertayne, rathar than by laches, or defaulte of curage, to susteyne reprooche, that of lyklihode shulde have ensued; And so, therfore, notwithstondinge the discoraginge words of the Recordar, which had be afore suspecte to hym and his partie, he kept boldely forthe his ionrey, streyght towards the citie. And, within a while, came to hym, owt of the citie, Robart Clifford and Richard Burghe, whiche gave hym and his felowshipe bettar comforte, affirmynge, that in the qwarell aforesayde of his fathar the Duke of Yorke, he shuld be receyvyd and sufferyd to passe; whereby, better somewhate encoragyd, he kepte his waye; natheles efte sonnes cam the sayde Coniers, and put hym in lyke discomforte as afore. And so, sometyme comfortyd and sometyme discomfortyd, he came to the gates of the citie, where his felashipe made a stoppe, and himself and xvj or xvij persons, in the ledings of the sayde Clifford and Richard Burgh passed even in at the gates, came to the worshipfull folks whiche were assembled a little within the gates, and shwed them th’entent and purpos of his comming, in suche forme, and with such maner langage, that the people contentyd htem therwithe, and so receyvyd hym, and all his felawshipe, that night, when he and all his feloshipe abode and were refreshed well to they had dyned on the morne, and than departed out of the citie to Tadcastar, a towne of th’Erls of Northumbarland, x mile sowthwards. And, on the morrow after that, he toke his waye towards Wakefielde and Sendall, a grete lorshipe appartayninge to the Duke of Yorke, leving the Castell of Pomfrete on his lefte hand, wher abode, and was, the Marqwes Montagwe, that in no wyse trowbled hym, ne none of his fellowshipe, but sufferyd hym to passe in peasceable wyse, were it with good will or noo, men may juge at theyr pleaswre; I deme ye, but trouth it is,that he ne had nat, ne cowthe not have gatheryd, ne made, a felashipe of nombar sufficient to have openly resistyd hym in hys qwarell, ne in Kynge Henries qwarell; and one great caws was, for great partie of the people in thos partis lovyd the Kyngs person well, and cowthe nat be encoragyd directly to doo agayne hym in that qwarell of the Duke of Yorke, which in almannar langage of all his fellawshipe was covertly pretendyd, and none othar. An othar grete cawse, for grete partye of [the] noble men and comons in thos parties were towards th’Erle of Northumbarland, and would not stire with any lorde or noble man other than with the sayde Earle, or at leaste by his commandement. And, for soo muche as he sat still, in suche wise that yf the Marques wolde have done his besines to have assembled them in any manier qwarell, neithar for his love, whiche they bare hym none, ne for any commandement of higher autoritie, they ne wolde in no cawse, ne qwarell, have assisted hym. Wherein it may right well appere, that the said Erle, in this behalfe, dyd the Kynge right gode and notable service, and, as it is deemed in the conceipts of many men, he cowthe nat hav done hym any beter service, ne not thowghe he had openly declared hym selfe extremly parte-taker with the Kynge in his rightwys qwarell, and, for that entent, have gatheryd and assemblyd all the people that he might have made; for, how be it he loved the Kynge trewly and parfectly, as the Kynge thereof had certayne knowledge, and wolde, as of himselfe and all his power, have served hym trewly, yet it was demyd, and lykly it was trewe, that many gentlemen, and othar, whiche would have be araysed by him, woulde not so fully and extremly have determyned them selfe in the Kyng’s right and qwarell as th’Erle wolde have done hymselfe; havynge in theyr freshe remembraunce how that the Kynge, at the first entrie-winning of his right to the Royme and Crowne of England , had and won a great battaile in those same parties, where theyr Maistar, th’Erll’s fathar, was slayne, many of theyr fathars, theyr sonns, theyr britherne, and kynsemen, and othar many of theyr neighbowrs; wherefore, and nat without cawse, it was thowght that they cowthe nat have borne verrey good will, and done theyr best service, to the Kynge, at this tyme, and in this quarell. And so it may be resonably judged that this was a notable good service, and politiquely done, by th’Erle. For his sittynge still caused the citie of Yorke to do as they dyd, and no werse, and every man in all thos northe partes to sit still also, and suffre the Kynge to passe as he dyd, nat with standynge many were right evill disposed of them selfe agaynes the Kynge, and, in especiall, in his qwarell. Wherefore the Kynge may say as Julius Cesar sayde, he that is nat agaynst me is with me. And othar right greate cause why the Marqwes made nat a felawshippe agaynst hym for to have trowbled hym [was], for thwoghe all the Kynges [felowshipe] at that season were nat many in nombar, yet they were so habiled, and so well piked men, and, in theyr werke they hadd on hand, so willed, that it had bene right hard to right-a-great felashipe, moche greatar than they, or gretar than the Marquis, or his friends, at that tyme, cowthe have made, or assembled, to have put the Kynge and his sayde felowshipe to any distresse. And nothar cawse [was], where as he cam thrwghe the cuntre there, the people toke an opinion, that yf the peoples of the contries wherethrwghe he had passed aforne, had owght him any mannar of malice, or evill will, they would some what have shewed it whan he was amongs them, but, inasmoche as no man had so don aforne, it was a declaration and evidence to all thos by whome he passyd after, that in all othar contries wer none but his good lovars; and greate foly it had bene to the lattar cuntries to have attempted that the former cuntries would not, thinkynge verilie that, in suche case, they, as his lovars, would rathar have ayded hym thann he shulde have bene distressed; wherefore he passed with moche bettar will.

Abowte Wakefylde, and thos parties, came some folks unto hym, but not so many as he supposed wholde have comen; nevarthelesse his nombar was encreasyd. And so from thens he passyd forthe to Doncastar, and so forthe to Notyngham. And to that towne came unto hym two good Knyghts, Syr William Parre, and Ser James Harington, with two good bands of men, well arrayed, and habled for warr, the nombar vi{c} men.

The Kynge, beinge at Notyngham, and or he came there, sent the scorers alabowte the contries adioynynge, to aspie and serche yf any gaderyngs were in any place agaynst hym; some of whome came to Newerke, and undarstode well that there was, within the towne, the Duke of Excestar, th’Erle of Oxforde, the Lord Bardolf, and othar, with great felowshipe, which th’Erle and they had gatheryd in Essex, in Northfolke, Sowthefolke, Cambridgeshire, Huntyngdonshire, and Lyncolneshire, to the nombar of iiij{m} men. The sayde Duke and Erll, havynge knowledge that the sayde forrydars of the Kyngs had bene aforne the towne in the evenynge, thinkynge verily that the Kynge, and his hole hoste, were approchinge nere, and would have come upon them, determyned shortly within themselfe that [they] might not abyde his comynge. Wherefore, erly, abowte two of the cloke in the mornynge, they flede out of the towne, and ther they lost parte of the people that they had gatheryd and browght with them thethar. Trewthe it was, that, whan the Kynges aforne-ridars had thus espyed theyr beinge, they acertaynyd the Kynge therof, at Notyngham, which, incontinent, assembled all his felowshipe, and toke the streyght waye to-them-wards, within three myle of the towne. And, there, came to hym certayne tydings that they were fledd owt of Newerke, gonn, and disperpled, to determyne his qwarell in playne fielde, which the same Earele refused to do at that tyme, and so he dyd iij dayes aftar-ensuinge continually. The Kynge, seinge this, drwe hym and all his hooste streght to Warwike, vijj small myles from thens, where he was receyvyd as Kynge, and so made his proclamations from that tyme forthe wards; where he toke his lodgyngs, wenynge thereby to have gyven the sayde Earle gretar cowrage to have yssyed owte of the towne of Coventrye, and to have taken the fielde, but he ne would so doo. Nathelesse dayly came certayne personns on the sayde Erlls behalve to the Kinge, and made greate moynes, and desired him to treat with hym, for some gode and expedient appoyntment. And, how be it the Kynge, by the advise of his Counseylors, graunted the sayd Elre his lyfe, and all his people beinge there at that tyme, and dyvers othar fayre offers made hym, consythar his great and haynows offenses; which semyd resonable, and that for the wele of peax and tranquilitie of the Realme of England, for ther-by to avoyde th’effusyon of Christen bloode, yet he ne woulde accepte the sayde offars, ne accorde thereunto, but yf he myght have had suche apoyntment unresonable as myght nat in eny wyse with the Kyngs honowr and swretye.

Here is to be remembride how that, at suche season aforne, as whan the Kynge was in Holand, the Duke of Clarence, the Kyngs second brothar, consyderinge the great inconveniences whereunto as well his brother the Kynge, he, and his brother the Duke of Glocestar, were fallen unto, thrwghe and by the devysyon that was betwixt them, whereunto, by the subtyle compassynge of th’Erle of Warwike, and his complices, they ewre browght, and enduced; as, first to be remembred, the dishertinge of them all from the Royme and Crowne of England, and that therto apperteynyd; and besyds that, the mortall warre and detestable, lykely to falle betwixt them; and ovar this, that yt was evident that to what party so evar God woulde graunte the victorye, that, notwithstandynge, the wynner shuld nat be in eny bettar suerty therefore of his owne estate and parson, but abyde in as greate, or greatar, dangar than they wer in at that tyme. And, in especiall, he cnsidered well, that hymselfe was had in great suspicion, despite, disdeigne, and hatered, with all the lordes, noblemen, and othar, that were adherents and full partakers with Henry, the Usurpar, Margaret his wyfe, and his sonne Edward, called Prince; he sawe also, that they dayly laboryd amongs them, brekynge theyr appoyntments made with hym, and, of lyklihed, aftar that, shuld continually more and more fervently entend, conspire, and procure the distruction of hym, and of all his blode, wherethrwghe it apperyd also, that the Roylme and Regalie shuld remaygne to suche as thereunto myght nat en eny wyse have eny rightwyse title. And, for that it was unnaturall, and agaynes God, to suffar any suche werre to continew and endure betwixt them, if it myght otharwyse be, and, for othar many and great considerations, that by right wyse men and virtuex were layed afore hym, in many behalfs, he was agreed to entend to some good appointment for the pacification. By right covert wayes and meanes were good mediators, and mediatricis, the highe and myghty princis my Lady, theyr mothar; my lady of Exceter, my lady of Southfolke, theyre systars; my Lord Cardinall of Cantorbery; my Lord of Bathe; my Lord of Essex; and, moste specially, my Lady of Bourgoigne; and othar, by mediacions of certayne priests, and othar well disposyd parsouns. Abowte the Kyngs beinge in Holland, and in other partes beyond the sea, great and diligent labowre, with all effect, was continually made by the high and mighty princesse, the Duches of Bowrgine, which at no season ceasyd to send hir servaunts, and messengars, to the Kynge, wher he was, and to my sayd Lorde of Clarence, into England; and so dyd his verrey good devowre in that behalfe my Lord of Hastings, the Kyng’s Chambarlayne, so that a parfecte accord was appoyntyd, concludyd, and assured, betwixt them; wherein the sayde Duke of Clarence full honorably and trwly acquited hym; for, as sune as he was acertaygned of the Kyngs arivall in the north parties, he assembled anon suche as would do for hym, and, assone as he godly myght, drew towards the Kynge, hym to abyde and assyste agaynste all his enemyes, accompanied with mo than iiij{m}.

The Kynge, that tyme beinge at Warwyke, and undarstondynge his neere approchinge, upon an aftarnone isswyed out of Warwike, with all his felowshipe, by the space of three myles, into a fayre fylde towards Banbery, where he saw the Duke, his brothar, in faire array, come towards hym, with a greate felashipe. And, whan they were togedars, within lesse than an halfe myle, the Kynge set his people in aray, the bannars [displayed] and lefte them standynge still, takynge with hym his brothar of Glocestar, the Lord Rivers, Lord Hastings, and fewe othar, and went towards his brothar of Clarence. And, in lyke wyse, the Duke, for his partye takyinge with hym a fewe noble men, and levinge his hoost in good order, departyd from them towards the Kynge. And so they mett betwixt both hostes, where was right kynde and lovynge langwage betwixt them twoo, with parfite accord knyt togethars for evar here aftar, with as hartyly lovynge chere and countenaunce, as might be betwix two bretherne of so grete nobley and astate. And than, in lyke wyse, spake togethar the two Dukes of Clarnence and Glocestar, and, aftar, othar noble men beinge there with them, whereof all the people there that lovyd them, and awght them theyr trew service, were right glade and ioyows, and thanked God highly of that ioyows metynge, unitie, and accorde, hopynge that, therby, shuld growe unto them prosperows fortune, in all that they shuld aftar that have a doo. And than the trompetts and minstrels blew uppe, and, with that, the Kynge browght his brothar Clarence, and suche as were there with hym, to his felowshipe, whom the sayd Duke welcomyd into the land in his best manner, and they thanked God, and hym, and honoryd hym as it apparteygned.

Aftar this, the Kynge, yet levinge his hooste standynge still, with the sayd few persons went with his brothar of Clarence to his hoste, whome he hertily welcomyd, and promised hym largely of his grace and good love, and, from thens, they all come hoole togethars to the Kyngs hooste, when ethar party welcomyd and jocundly receyvyd othar, with perfect frindlynes; and, so, with greate gladnes, bothe hostes, with theyr princes, togethars went to Warwyke, with the Kynge, and ther lodged, and in the countrie near adioyninge.

Sone aftar this the Duke of Clarence, beinge right desyrows to have procuryd a goode accorde betwyxt the Kynge and th’Erle of Warwyke; not only for th’Erle, but also for to reconsyle therby unto the Kyngs good grace many lordes and noble men of his land, of whom many had largly taken parte with th’Erle; and for this the weale of peax and tranquilitie in the land, and in avoydynge of cruell and mortall were, that, of the contrary, was lykly, in shortyme, to enswe; he made, therefore, his mocions, as well to the Kynge as to th’Erle, by messagis sendynge to and fro, bothe for the well above sayde, as to acquite hym trwly and kyndly in the love he bare unto hym, and his blood, whereunto he was allied by the marriage of his dawghtar. The Kynge, at th’ynstaunce of his sayd brothar, the Duke, was content to shew hym largly his grace, with dyvars good condicions, and profitable for th’Erle yf that he woulde have acceptyd them. But th’Erle, whether he in maner dispaired of any good pardurable continuaunce of good accord betwixt the Kynge and hym, for tyme to come, consyderinge so great attemptes by hym comytted agaynst the Kynge; or els, for that willinge to enterteigne the greate promises, pacts, and othes, to the contrary, made solempnily, and also priuately sworne, to the Frenche Kynge, Qwene Margarete, and hir sonne Edward, in the qwarell of them, and of his owne sechinge, wherefrom he ne couthe departe, without grete desklaundar; or els, for that he had afore thwoght, and therefore purveyed, that, in caase he myght nat get to have the ovar-hand of the Kynge, his meanes were founden of sure and certayne escape by the sea to Calais, whiche was enswryd to hym selfe in every caas that myght hape hym, so that it myght fortwne hym to come thethar; or els, for that certayne parsons beinge with hym in companye, as th’Erle of Oxenforde, and othar, beinge desposed in extrem malice agaynst the Kynge, wolde not suffre hym t’accepte any mannar of appoyntment, were it resonable or unresonable, but causyd hym to refuse almannar of appointements; whiche as many men deme was the verray cawse of none acceptinge of the Kyngs [grace]; wherefore all suche treaty brake and toke none effecte.

In this meane season of the Kyngs beinge at Warwyke, cam to the Erle of Warwyke, to Coventrye, the Duke of Excestar, the Marques Mountagwe, th’Erle of Oxenforde, with many othar in great nombar, by whos than commynge dayly grew and encreasyd the felwoshipe of that partye. The Kynge, withe his brithern, this consyderinge, and that in no wyse he cowthe provoke hym to come owt of the towne, ne thingkynge it behoffoll to assayll, ne to tary for the asseginge therof; as well for avoydaunce of greate slaghtars that shuld therby enswe, and for that it was thowght more experdient to them to draw towards London, and there, with helpe of God, and th’assystaunce of his trwe lords, lovars, and servaunts, whiche were there, in thos partes, in great nombar; knowynge also, that his principall advarsarye, Henry, with many his partakers, were at London, ther usurpynge and usyinge the athoritie royall, which barred and letted the Kyng of many aydes and assystaunces, that he shuld and mowght hav had, in divars parties, yf he myght ones shew himselffe of powere to breke their actoritie; wherefore, by th’advyse of his sayd brithern, and othar of his cownsell, he toke his purpos to London wards, and so departyd fro Warwicke; yet, efte sones, shewinge hym, and his hoste, before Coventrie, and desyringe the sayd Erle, and his felashipe, to come owte, and, for to determyne his qwarell by battayle, whiche he and they utterly refused, wherefore the Kynge, and his brethern kept forthe theyr purpos sowthewardes. And this was the v. day of Aprell the Friday.

On Satarday, the Kynge, with all his hooste, cam to a towne called Davantre, where the Kynge, with greate devocion, hard all divine service upon the morne, Palme-Sonday, in the parishe churche, wher God, and Seint Anne, shewyd a fayre miracle; a goode pronositique of good aventure that aftar shuld befall unto the Kynge by the hand of God, and mediation of that holy matron Seynt Anne. For, so it was, that, afore that tyme, the Kynge, beinge out of his realme, in great trowble, thowght, and hevines, for the infortwne and adversitie that was fallen hym, full often, and, specially upon the sea, he prayed to God, owr Lady, and Seint George, and, amonges othar saynts, he specially prayed to Seint Anne to helpe hym, where that he promysed, that, at the next tyme that it shuld hape hym to se any ymage of Seint Anne, he shuld therto make his prayers, and gyve his offeringe, in honor and worshipe of that blessyd Saynte. So it fell, that, the same Palme Sonday, the Kynge went in procession, and all the people aftar, in goode devotion, as the service of that daye askethe, and, whan the processyon was comen into the churche, and, by ordar of the service, were comen to that place where the vale shulbe drawne up afore the Roode, that all the people shall honor the Roode, with the anthem, Ave, three times begon, in a pillar of the churche, directly aforne the place where the Kynge knelyd, and devowtly honoryd the Roode, was a lytle ymage of Seint Anne, made of alleblastar, standynge fixed to the piller, closed and clasped togethars with four bordes, small, payntyd, and gowynge rownd abowt the image, in manar of a compas, lyke as it is to see comonly, and all abowt, where as suche ymages be wont to be made for to be solde and set up in churches, chapells, crosses, and oratories, in many placis. And this ymage was thus shett, closed, and clasped, accordynge to the rulles that, in all the churches of England, be observyd, all ymages to be hid from Ashe Wednesday to Estarday in the mornynge. And so the sayd ymage had bene from Ashwensday to that tyme. And even sodaynly, at that season of the service, the bords compassynge the ymage about gave a great crak, and a little openyd, which the Kynge well perceyveyd and all the people about hym. And anon, aftar, the bords drewe and closed toegthars agayne, withowt any mans hand, or touchinge, and, as thwoghe it had bene a thinge done with a violence, with a gretar might it openyd all abrod, and so the ymage stode, open and discovert, in syght of all the people there beynge. The Kynge, this seinge, thanked and honoryd God, and Seint Anne, takynge it for a good signe, and token of good and prosperous aventure that God wold send hym in that he had to do, and, remembringe his promyse, he honoryd God, and Seint Anne, in that same place, and gave his offerings. All thos, also, that were present and sawe this worshippyd and thanked God and Seint Anne, there, and many offeryd; takyng of this signe, shewed by the power of God, good hope of theyr good spede for to come.

The Kynge from that towne went to a good towne callyd Northhampton, wher he was well receyved, and, from thens toke the next way towardes London, levynge alway behynd hym in his jowrney a good bande of speres and archars, his behynd-rydars, to countar, yf it had neded, suche of th’Erls partye as, peradventure, he shuld have t[o] have trowbled hym on the bakhalfe, yf he do had done.

Here it is to be remembred, that, in this season of the Kyngs comynge towards and beinge at Warwyke, and of the comynge to hym of his brothar the Duke of Clarence, Edmund callynge hymselfe Duke of Somarset, John of Somarset, his brother, callyd Marqwes Dorset, Thomas Courtney, callynge hym self th’Erle of Devonshire, beinge at London, had knowledge owt of Fraunce, that Qwene Margaret, and hir sonne, callyd Prince of Wales, the Countes of Warwyke, the Prior of Seint Johns, the Lord Wenloke, with othar many, theyr adherents and parte-takers, with all that evar they myght make, were ready at the sea-stde commynge, purposynge to arive in the West Contrie; wherefore they departyd owt of London, and went into the west parties, and ther bestryd them right greatly to make an assemblye of asmoche people for to receyve them at theyr comynge, them to accompany, fortyfy, and assyst, agaynst the Kynge, and all his partakars, in the qwarels of Henry, callyd Kynge, and occupinge the regalie for that tym. And trew it was that she, hir sonne, the Countes of Warwike, the Lords, and othar of theyr fellowshipe, entryd theyr ships for that entent the xxiiij, of Marche, and so continuyd theyr abode in theyr ships, or they myght land in England, to the xiij. day of Aprell, for defawlt of good wynd, and for grete temptests upon the sea, that time, as who saythe, continuynge by the space of xx dayes. But leve we this, and retorne agayne to the Kyngs progresse in his jowrney towards London, tellynge how that he came upon Twesday, the ix. day of Aprill, from whens he sent comfortable messagis to the Qwene at Westminstar, and to his trew Lords, servaunts, and lovars, beynge at London; wherupon, by the moste covert meanes that they cowthe, [they] avised and practysed how that he myght be receyved and welcomyd at his sayde city of London. Th’Erle of Warwike, knowenge this his iowrneynge, and approchinge to London, sent his lettars to them of the citie, willinge and chargynge them to resyste him and let the receyvynge of him and of his. He wrote also to put hym in uttarmoste devowr he cowthe, to provoke the citie agayns hym, and kepe hym owt, for two or three dayes; promisynge that he wolde not fayle to come with great puisance on the bakhalfe, trustinge utterly to dystresse and distroye hym and his, as to the same he had, by his othar writyngs, encharged the maior, and the aldermen, and the comons of the citie.

Hereupon, the ix. day of Aprell, th’Archbyshope callyd unto hym togethars, at Seint Powles, within the Citie of London, suche lords, gentlemen, and othar, as were of that partye, [with] as many men in harneys of theyr servaunts and othar as they cowthe make, which, in all, passed nat in nombar vj or vij{m} men, and thereupon, cawsed Henry, called Kynge, to take an horse and ryde from Powles thrwghe Chepe, and so made a circute abowte to Walbroke, as the generall processyon of London hathe bene accustomyd, and so returned agayne to Powles, to the Bysshops Palays, where the sayd Henry at that tyme was lodged, supposynge, that, whan he had shewed hym in this arraye, they shuld have provokyd the citizens, and th’enhabitants of the citie, to have stonde and comen to them, and fortified that partye; but, threwthe it is, that the rewlars of the citie were at the counsell, and hadd set men at all the gates and wardes, and they, seynge by this manner of doinge, that the power of the sayde Henry, and his adherents, was so litle and feble as there and then was shweyd, they cowld thereby take no corage to draw to them, ne to fortefye theyr partye, and, for that they fearyd, but rathar the contrary, for so moche as they sawe well that, yf they wolde so have done, ther myght was so lytle that it was nat for them to have ones attemptyd to have resystid the Kynge in his comynge, whiche approched nere unto the citie, and was that nyght at Seint Albons. They also of the citie in great nombar, and, namly, of the moaste worshipfull, were fully disposed to favowr the Kynge, and to have the citie opne unto hym at his comynge. They of the citie also consideryd, that he was notably well accompanied with many good, hable, and well-willed men, whiche, for no power, nor no resistence that myght be made, would spare to attempt, and suporte, the takynge the citie, by all wayes possible; whereof they ne shuld have failed, consideringe that the Kynge, at that tyme had many greate and myghty frinds, lovars, and servitors, within the sayd citie, whiche would not have fayled by dyvers enterprises have made the citie open unto hym; as this myght nat be unknowne unto right many of the sayde citie; and, also, as might appere by that was don aftar in that behalfe and to that entent. Thus, what for love that many bare to the Kynge, and what for drade that many men had, how that, in caas the citie shuld have bene wonne upon them by foarce, the citiesens shuld therefore have systeyned harmes and damagis irreparable, and for many othar great consyderations, the maior, aldarmen, and othar worshipfull of the citie, determined clerly amongs them selfe to kepe the citie for the Kynge, and to opne it to hym, at his comynge; as so they sent to hym that therein they would be gwydyd to his pleaswre. Th’Archebyshope of Yorke, undarstondynge the Kyngs commyng, and approchinge nere to the citie, sent secretly unto hym desyringe to be admittyd to his grace, and to be undar good appoyntement, promittynge therefore to do unto hym great pleaswre for his well and swertye; whereunto the Kynge, for good cawse and considerations, agreed so to take hym to his grace. Th’Archbyshope, therof assuryd, was ryght well pleasyd, and therefore wele and trwlye acquite hym, in observynge the promisye that he had made to the Kynge in that behalfe.

The same nyght followynge the towre of London was taken for the Kyngs beholfe; whereby he had a playne entrie into the citie throwghe all they had not bene determyned to have receyvyd hym in, as they were. And on the morrow, the Thursday, the xj. day of Aprell, the Kynge came, and had playne overture of the sayd citie, and rode streight to Powles churche, and from thens went into the Byshops paleis, where th’Archbyshope of Yorke presentyd hym selfe to the Kyngs good grace, and, in his hand, the usurpowr, Kynge Henry; and there was the Kynge seasyd of hym and dyvars rebels. From Powles the Khynge went to Westmynstar, there honoryd, made his devout prayers, and gave thankyngs to God, Saint Petre, and Saint Edward, and then went to the Qwene, and comfortyd her; that had a longe tyme abyden and soiourned at Westmynstar, asswringe hir parson only the the great fraunchis of that holy place, in right great trowble, sorow, and hevines, whiche she sustayned with all manar pacience that belonged to eny creature, and as constantly as hathe bene sene at any tyme of so highe estate to endure; in the whiche season natheles she had browght into this worlde, to the Kyngs greatyste joy, a fayre sonn, a prince, where with she presentyd hym at his comynge, to his herts syngluler comforte and gladnes, and to all them that hym trewly loved and wolde serve. From thens, that nyght, the Kynge retornyd to London, and the Qwene with hym, and lodged at the lodgynge of my Lady his mothar; where they harde devyne service that nyght, and upon morne, Good Fryeday; where also, on the morn, the Kynge took advise of the great lords of his blood, and othar of his counsell, for the adventures that were lykely for to come.


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