early June With his rebellion in disarray, his Percy allies on the run and the duke of York stamping his authority on the north of England, Henry Holland, duke of Exeter, returns to London, seeking sanctuary in Westminster.
June After the death of Edmund Beaufort, duke of Somerset, at the first battle of St Albans, Warwick takes his son, Henry, into his care but fails to win him over.
John Wenlock (queen Margaret’s chamberlain) sends overtures to Warwick which are warmly received. Wenlock becomes a devoted supporter.
June Piers de Breze, seneschal of Normandy, attacks Sandwich by land and sea, smashes into the harbour, plunders and ravages the town. He retires unhurt. There is no opposition from Henry Holland, duke of Exeter, admiral of England.
late June Great council meeting at Coventry. The archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of Ely (both Bourchiers, connected to York through marriage) duke of York, bishop of Exeter (George Nevill), the earls of Salisbury, Warwick and Arundel (Salisbury’s son-in-law) and viscount Bourchier (York’s brother-in-law) are all absent.
early June Warwick, en route to Calais from Ireland, meets Exeter off the Devon coast. Exeter’s men are on the verge of mutiny due to lack of supplies. Warwick signals battle and Exeter turns back to Dartmouth harbour. Warwick continues to Calais.
Osbert Mountford is at Sandwich, readying to reinforce the duke of Somerset, who is holding Guisnes castle.
Sir John Dynham and William Nevill, lord Fauconberg, lead a raid on Sandwich. Dynham is wounded. Mountford is captured, Stores and munitions are taken.
Francesco Coppini, papal legate, joins Warwick.
5 June Mountford is executed on the beach below the tower of Rysbank.
6 June Warwick, Salisbury and Edward, earl of March sail for Sandwick with 2,000 men and Coppini. They gather more men. From Canterbury, Warwick sends messages and manifestoes ahead of him. They pray at Thomas Becket’s tomb and take the Cross of Canterbury.
Lord Scales holds London.
28 June Edward (earl of March/duke of York) is crowned king Edward IV. His brother George is made duke of Clarence, Richard duke of Gloucester. Viscount Bourchier is made earl of Essex. William Hastings, William Herbert, Humphrey Stafford of Southwick and Robert Ogle are all made barons.
June A summer truce with the Scots is signed in Carlisle.
Montagu and Hastings are attempting to take the northern castles out of Lancastrian hands.
Margaret of Anjou signs a treat with Louis XI, she will hand over Calais (if she regains her husband’s crown) in return for men, ships, money and the release of Piers de Breze, who is to lead the invasion.
early June Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland, repudiates his recent oat of allegiance to Edward IV.
Margaret of Anjou, Prince Edward and Henry VI are at Bamburgh castle. Dunstanburgh and Alnwick fall to the Lancastrians. A Scots army waits across the border.
John Nevill (lord Montagu and warden of the east march) goes north. Warwick follows. They gather men as they go. George Nevill is told to arm the clergy and is sent to Durham.
The earl of Worcester sails up the cost with the fleet. The (recently rehabilitated and reconciled) duke of Somerset is sent into Wales.
Scots besiege Norham, are routed by Warwick and Montagu and chased north.
June John Nevill (recently made earl of Northumberland) calls on Bamburgh to surrender. The castle is defended by Ralph Grey. Guns are brought in and the walls are breached.
Warwick sends the following message: “We will besiege this castle for seven years if necessary. For every gunshot that hurts a wall of this royal stronghold, this jewel, a Lancastrian head will fall.”
Grey is knocked out by a ball that is sent into his chamber. The castle surrenders. Grey (severely injured) is tried by Worcester and condemned to death.
1 June Anglo-Scots truce is signed.
mid June Wenlock and Richard Whetehill leave London with 100 men, empowered to extend the truce with France. They tell Louis XI that Warwick will meet him in October.
The Bastard of Brittany secretly meets with Edward IV.
Warwick sends word to Louis XI that Edward will not enter any alliances with or talk to Louis’s discontented nobles.
June Tensions between France and Burgundy mount. Burgundian army crosses the Somme and marches south.
Warwick sends sworn assurances to Louis that he has nothing to fear from England.
June (‘summer’) Warwick tries to win over the dukes of Clarence and Gloucester. He suggests that Clarence might marry his daughter, Isobel. Edward gets wind of this and tells Clarence to forget it. Clarence moves closer to Warwick, Gloucester pulls away.
George Nevill is secretly working on a dipsensation for Clarence and Isobel. He’s also working hard on getting himself a cardinal’s hat.
Warwick cultivates the support of lord Stanley and the earl of Oxford (brothers-in-law) and the earl of Shrewsbury. He hopes to win over Hastings (also a brother-in-law) and falls out with the Herberts.
3 June Parliament assembles, George Nevill (chancellor) sends word that he’s too ill to attend.
7 June Warwick and Louis XI meet at La Bouille. Louis rides back to Rouen, Warwick goes on by water.
Louis and Warwick meet privately and discuss an alliance against Burgundy, a marriage for Margaret of York and economic co-operation between France and England. Louis suggests that if Edward IV is unco-operative, Warwick could always restore Henry VI. Warwick isn’t interested. He says that Lancaster is finished and he is confident Edward will listen to him.
8 June Edward goes to George Nevill’s house and removes the Great Seals. Robert Kirkham (Keeper of the Rolls) is acting chancellor – eventually the bishop of Bath & Wells is appointed.
11 & 12 June Tournament at Smithfield.
14 June The Bastard of Burgundy is feasted by Edward and Elizabeth in Grocers’ Hall.
15 June Tournament and feasting continue.
June The duke of Burgundy (Philip the Good) dies.
16 June Warwick leaves Rouen with a high ranking French embassy.
23 June Warwick sails from Honfleur.
24 June News comes of the duke of Burgundy’s death. Bastard of Burgundy goes home.
June Margaret of Anjou’s emissary is captured carrying letters. A servant of Wenlock’s (Hawkins) is implicated, he in turn implicates Thomas Cook and says that Wenlock has been plotting with the Lancastrians. Cook is accused of treason, possibly for helping finance Margaret of Anjou. Others are also accused.
A commission is set up to investigate, including Warwick, Clarence, earl Rivers and the mayor of London.
7 June Parliament is dissolved.
18 June Margaret of York leaves for her marriage to Charles duke of Burgundy. She rides pillion through London with Warwick.
June Margaret of York stays several days with Edward and Elizabeth at the abbey of Stratford Langthorne, then to Margate to sail to Flanders. Anthony and John Wydeville, the duchess of Norfolk, John Wenlock, John Howard and the Paston brothers go with her. Warwick leads the train to the coast. There are several days of feasting and everyone is happy.
Somerset, Exeter and other Lancastrian exiles quietly leave Bruges the day before Margaret of York arrives. Charles duke of Burgundy says he’ll neither shelter nor assist them again.
4 June Jasper Tudor, financed by Louis, leading a force of French soldiers, lands near Harlech and tries to take the castle. He fails and returns to France.
6 June Edward IV is mobilising his army. Herbert is in Wales, Devon in Devonshire, Edward in East Anglia with Anthony and John Wydeville and his brother Gloucester. They make a pilgrimage to Walsingham.
7 June Clarence goes to Canterbury with a large train.
Edward is at the Moor with George Nevill. He suggests he come north with him to help sort out the recent trouble (Robin of Redesdale’s rising). George says there’s something he needs to deal with first.
9 June Clarence goes to Sandwich, George Nevill to Canterbury then Sandwich.
12 June George Nevill blesses the Trinity and says high mass on board with Warwick and Clarence.
14 June Cecily Nevill is at Canterbury.
15 June Cecily is at Sandwich,
20 June Edward IV is at Fotheringhay.
Robin of Redesdale is coming south.
Warwick sends word for them to swing west and cut Edward off from London.
22 June Warwick and Clarence go to Canterbury, then Queenborough castle.
28 June Warwick is in London. He sends two letters to Coventry – one to the mayor and the other for his wellwishers and friends. He announces the upcoming marriage between Isobel Nevill and Clarence and says that afterwards they will be joining Edward. Would the city fathers please prepare an armed band to accompany him?
8 June Warwick leaves his ships in Honfleur and rides with Clarence to Amboise, where he meets with Louis XI and queen Charlotte. Warwick and Louis confer privately. Louis will give a fleet, troops and money to help reseat Henry VI. Warwick promises a peace treaty and alliance against Burgundy. Anne Nevill is to marry prince Edward, the prince then to go to England with Warwick. Louis promises to make the first approaches to Margaret of Anjou.
12 June Warwick leaves for Vendome, Clarence to Normandy.
13 June Bugundian fleet meets Anthony Wydeville earl Rivers at sea, anchors off Chef-aux-Caux and demands the surrender of Warwick and his goods. This is refused. They demolish houses in Honfleur and Harfleur. People are killed, some of Warwick’s ships are burned.
Louis wants to find a way to get Warwick to leave, preferably returning his recently pirated ships and goods, but doesn’t want to offend him.
Warwick goes to his ships.
Duke of Burgundy arrests French merchants at Antwerp fair. Louis sends an embassy to Burgundy to protest damage and report on the planned return of Warwick’s Burgundian prizes.
Louis talks with Margaret of Anjou.
John Fortescue drafts an agreement giving Warwick governorship of England under Henry VI.
Margaret agrees to all the terms, including the marriage of her son to Anne Nevill, but won’t let her son go to England until Warwick has everything settled.
end June Burgundian ships withdraw for refit. Rivers goes to East Anglian coast to meet a threat from the Hanse.
Warwick moves his ships to safer anchorage.
29 June Warwick’s fleet in Barfleur and La Hougue.
30 June Admiral of France takes Warwick’s warships and supply vessels to Chef-aux- Caux. Warwick makes his headquarters at Valognes.
Louis and Charlotte’s son, Charles, is born.